||Kosovo and Montenegro are located in the Western Balkan region. Forest area covers around half of the land area of each country. Most of the forests are located in mountainous and hilly areas, and it is necessary to maintain and manage forest ecosystems in the mountainous areas from the viewpoint of soil conservation and watershed management. At the same time, forest fires that frequently occur as natural disasters are one of the serious threats to forest ecosystems; therefore, countermeasures against forest fires at an early stage are urgently needed.
Japan implemented for North Macedonia, which is also located in the Western Balkan region, and established the Macedonian Forest Fire Information System (MKFFIS), a system for responding to disasters, especially forest fires. The system has been evaluated highly by the government of North Macedonia in terms of strengthening its capacity for disaster risk reduction and mitigation. Based on this series of measures implemented by the Japanese government, including the technical cooperation project of Northern Macedonia, the governments of Kosovo and Montenegro have requested support from the Japanese government for the implementation of similar cooperation.
Kosovo is a landlocked country located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. The country is surrounded by mountains, especially on its western and southern borders, which are over 2,000 m high. As a result, forest fires, floods, landslides, wind storms, winter snowstorms, and avalanches have been confirmed as natural disasters that occur there.
The occurrence of forest fires not only affects the reduction of forest resources and biodiversity, but delays the recovery of forests and may also lead to the occurrence of other natural disasters, such as soil erosion. Therefore, early detection and countermeasures against forest fires are very important for minimizing damage, and thus, a system that monitors the whole country using satellite images from the sky is effective.
Although forest fires are the most prominent natural disasters that occur in Kosovo, accounting for about 70%, epidemic outbreaks (37%), followed by avalanches (27%), are the disasters that cause significant human suffering, such as death. The government of Kosovo has also taken measures such as planting trees for avalanche risk reduction, but due to a lack of systematic technology, survival rates are poor and the measures have not been effective.
*Eco-DRR:Ecosystems have multiple functions. For example, forests have a number of functions besides timber production, such as soil and watershed conservation, recreation, and biodiversity.
To realize a sustainable and resilient environment and to reduce disaster risks, the sustainable management, conservation, and restoration of ecosystems - known as "Eco-DRR (Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction)" - is indispensable.
The Overall Goal
Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) of Kosovo is strengthened with developed capacity of government agencies for protection against forest fires and other natural disasters.
The capacity of government agencies for prevention and reduction of forest fires and some other natural disasters is strengthened with the introduction of National Forest Fire Information System (NFFIS) and Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction (Eco-DRR).
NFFIS is developed, tested, and operationalized to monitor forest fires.
Eco-DRR to prevent damages from particular natural disasters is demonstrated.
Output 1 NFFIS is developed, tested, and operationalized to monitor forest fires.
1.1 Prepare the methodology of developing NFFIS and its definition and conceptual design
1.2 Conduct survey on existing resources and identify gaps to develop NFFIS.
1.3 Prepare technical and functional specification documents of NFFIS.
1.4 Install the equipment and functions required for NFFIS.
1.5 Organize technical and other training for selected EMA staff for NFFIS operationalization.
1.6 Prepare a plan to incorporate NFFIS into the Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) of Kosovo with relevant institutions.
1.7 Carry out the above plan with the operationalized NFFIS.
1.8 NFFIS and its extended services are incorporated into relevant policies and plans.
Output 2 Eco-DRR to prevent damage from particular natural disasters is demonstrated.
2.1 Design regulatory and experimental nature-based physical options to protect assets from wet-snow avalanche.
2.1.1 Identify potentially dangerous slopes against avalanche in Restelice Village.
2.1.2 Conduct dialogues with municipalities and local communities to consider feasible land use rules.
2.1.3 Summarize lessons on land use for reference in broader avalanche-affected and potential slopes.
2.1.4 Review existing effort to establish forest to protect assets from avalanche in Restelice Village.
2.1.5 Design/Set up experiments to test several hypothetically effective technical options.
2.1.6 Monitoring and evaluating in the demonstration site.
2.1.7 Organize reference materials for other avalanche prone slopes.
2.1.8 Conduct training seminars for organizations related to Eco-DRR.
2.1.9 Reflect Eco-DRR in policies and plans.
2.2 Designing and assisting implementation of restoration of wind-affected landscape.
2.2.1 Identify wind-affected demonstration site.
2.2.2 Identify issues caused by strong wind.
2.2.3 Prepare landscape rehabilitation design by utilizing natural resource.
2.2.4 Public awareness raising among stakeholders.
2.2.5 Assist construction of rehabilitation design by land owners.
2.2.6 Organize reference documents for other wind-affected landscapes.
Dispatch of Expert
Provision of necessary equipment for the project activities
Training in Japan or third counties
Land, Building, facilities, equipment
Administrative and Local Costs