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1.

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

innovative MachIne leaRning to constrain Aerosol-cloud CLimate Impacts (iMIRACLI)

  • 4 Million
  • United Kingdom
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innovative MachIne leaRning to constrain Aerosol-cloud CLimate Impacts (iMIRACLI)
Company Name THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD
Funded By 38
Country United Kingdom , Western Europe
Project Value 4 Million
Project Detail

Machine learning to increase knowledge on aerosol-cloud impacts The Paris Climate Agreement represents a huge step towards addressing the climate change problem. However, a wide range of difficulties emerge in its implementation. A major obstacle is the lack of scientific evidence on non-greenhouse gas forcing impacted by aerosol-cloud interactions. Even though big data science has been used to further understand aerosol-cloud climate interactions, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning are not yet fully applied in climate science, and scientists are not trained adequately. The EU-funded iMIRACLI project proposes the merging of AI, machine learning and climate science to investigate existing data and increase our knowledge on aerosol-cloud impacts. The project will train early stage researchers to produce a new generation of climate data experts.

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Contact Details

Company Name THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD
Address Wellington Square University Offices Ox1 2jd Oxford
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/860100

2.

POLITECNICO DI TORINO

Cloud-MicroPhysics-Turbulence-Telemetry: An inter-multidisciplinary training network for enhancing the understanding and modeling of atmospheric clouds

  • 4 Million
  • Italy
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Cloud-MicroPhysics-Turbulence-Telemetry: An inter-multidisciplinary training network for enhancing the understanding and modeling of atmospheric clouds
Company Name POLITECNICO DI TORINO
Funded By 38
Country Italy , Western Europe
Project Value 4 Million
Project Detail

Clouds are the largest source of uncertainty in weather prediction, climate science, and remain a weak link in modeling atmospheric circulation. This is rooted in the fact that clouds depend on the physical and chemical processes over a huge range of scales, from the collisions of micron-sized droplets and particles to the airflow dynamics on the scales of thousands of meters. Since ambiguities related to representation of clouds in climate models prevail, explorative observations are still needed. The challenge is on the one hand to establish connections across this range of scales, from aerosol and particle microphysics to macro-scale turbulent dynamics in clouds, and on the other to combine knowledge and training across vastly different scientific and engineering disciplines. The aim of COMPLETE is to develop an inter/multidisciplinary training network that will prepare high-potential early stage researchers (ESRs) with both scientific and industrially-oriented skills that will advance our understanding in these multi-scale complex natural phenomena. COMPLETE will vastly improve Europe’s position as a global leader in technology, science and innovation to address climate change challenges. The training programme will combine the scientific investigation of specific aspects of cloud physics and related turbulent dynamics with training in key professional skills. This comprises an exceptional experimental programme that includes field experiments, laboratory and numerical simulations, the design and development of advanced fast temperature probes, velocity MEMS and innovative atmospheric mini radio-sondes; all aimed at the production of new, Lagrangian based, cloud fluctuation datasets, required to reduce the fragmentation of results and knowledge in this field.

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Contact Details

Company Name POLITECNICO DI TORINO
Address Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24 10129 Torino
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/675675

3.

VEDURSTOFA ISLANDS

European Network of Observatories and Research Infrastructures for Volcanology

  • 6 Million
  • Iceland
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European Network of Observatories and Research Infrastructures for Volcanology
Company Name VEDURSTOFA ISLANDS
Funded By 38
Country Iceland , Northern Europe
Project Value 6 Million
Project Detail

EUROVOLC will construct an integrated and harmonized European volcanological community able to fully support, exploit and build-upon existing and emerging national and pan-European research infrastructures, including e-Infrastructures of the European Supersite volcanoes. The harmonization includes linking scientists and stakeholders and connecting still isolated volcanological infrastructures located at in situ volcano observatories (VO) and volcanological research institutions (VRIs). EUROVOLC will overcome fragmentation at various levels, including community, project and discipline fragmentation by addressing four main themes: Community building, volcano-atmosphere interaction, sub-surface processes and volcanic crisis preparedness and risk management. Examples of networking activities under these themes include collaboration and networking between VOs, VRIs and civil protection agencies, networking of atmospheric gas and aerosol observations as well as observations of subsurface processes, and initiation of access to multidisciplinary observations from Krafla Volcano Laboratory as a test bed. Joint research activities include production of services to initialize volcanic ash transport and dispersal models during eruptions, integrated modelling of pre-eruption data, and a complete catalogue of European Volcanoes. Trans-national access to European Volcano observatories will be facilitated and virtual access to various modelling and assessment tools for responding to volcanic unrest and eruptions will be offered. Through these activities EUROVOLC will integrate the European volcanological community and open up and provide a wider, simplified, and more efficient access to key, multidisciplinary European research infrastructures located at leading VOs and VRIs to conduct improved volcanological research, drive best practice at volcanological observatories and open pathways for enterprise to better exploit georesources in volcanic areas such as geothermal energy.

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Contact Details

Company Name VEDURSTOFA ISLANDS
Address Bustadarvegur 7-9 108 Reykjavik
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/731070

4.

DEEP BLUE SRL

CLIMATE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE MITIGATION STRATEGIES TOWARDS OPERATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS IN AVIATION

  • 3 Million
  • Italy
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CLIMATE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE MITIGATION STRATEGIES TOWARDS OPERATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS IN AVIATION
Company Name DEEP BLUE SRL
Funded By 38
Country Italy , Western Europe
Project Value 3 Million
Project Detail

Air Transport has for a long time been linked to environmental issues like pollution, noise and climate change. Aviation emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), soot and sulphate aerosols, alter the concentration of atmospheric Greenhouse gases and trigger the formation of contrails and cirrus clouds. The share of aviation amongst all anthropogenic CO2 emissions is about 2% (ATAG). However, studies estimate the climate impact from aviation for the year 2005 including non-CO2 emissions to roughly 5% of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing (Lee et al., 2010). Considering the projected growth of air traffic for the next decades of 5% (RPK) per year, aviation’s share of the total anthropogenic climate impact is expected to increase further. Consequently, intergovernmental organizations, aircraft manufacturers and operators and the research community are increasingly focusing on different technological, operational and regulatory climate impact mitigation options. In this framework, ClimOP aims to identify, evaluate and support the implementation of mitigation strategies to initiate and foster operational improvements which reduce the climate impact of the aviation sector. Operational improvements correspond to any operational measure or action taken through time in order to improve the current provision of aviation operations. The overall objective of ClimOp is to define actions and advice for policymakers by proposing a set of most promising and harmonized mitigation strategies.

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Contact Details

Company Name DEEP BLUE SRL
Address Via Ennio Quirino Visconti 8 00193 Roma
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/875503

5.

UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA

Development of GRASP radiative transfer code for the retrieval of aerosol microphysics vertical-profiles from space measurements and its impact in ACE mission

  • 8,77,500
  • Spain
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Development of GRASP radiative transfer code for the retrieval of aerosol microphysics vertical-profiles from space measurements and its impact in ACE mission
Company Name UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA
Funded By 38
Country Spain , Western Europe
Project Value 8,77,500
Project Detail

This project deals with reducing the uncertainties associated with the knowledge of aerosol microphysical vertical profiles worldwide through the use of new space-borne measurements. This objective links with the goal of the last IPCC 2013 to reduce uncertainties in aerosol direct effects, particularly in the knowing of absorption profiles. The approach we plan to develop is the development and applicability of the Generalized Retrieval of Atmosphere and Surface Properties (GRASP) for new space borne systems. GRASP has been already applied successfully to the POLDER/PARASOL system providing column-integrated aerosol microphysics and absorption. However, the new LIDAR space-borne sensors open new possibilities. To that end, we plan to study the details in constraints of the current techniques for the retrieval of aerosol microphysics from multi-wavelength lidar alone (known as the 3b+2a configuration), and will make evaluation studies versus in-situ instruments from large field campaigns such as DISCOVER-AQ and SEACR4S from NASA or SHADOW from the University of Lille. However, lidar measurements are difficult and usually presents low signal-to-noise ratio, particularly during daytime. We plan here to develop a joint inversion that uses combine measurements of lidar and polarimetric space-borne systems. Such approach is the core of the upcoming Aerosol-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) NASA mission. The development of this task will involve the use of synthetic database simulated using the NASA GEOS-5 model which will be used as reference. Different configurations of lidar and polarimeters will be studied to invert microphysical parameters. The results of this task will be also used for defining cost-effective ACE mission. Also, joint inversion will be evaluated using experimental measurements on NASA field campaigns that include airborne lidar systems such as HSRL-2 and Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (ACATS) and polarimeters such as the Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric

Sector Administration & Marketing

Contact Details

Company Name UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA
Address Cuesta Del Hospicio Sn 18071 Granada
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/778349

6.

INSTITUT QUIMIC DE SARRIA

Inhalable Aerosol Light Source for Controlling Drug-Resistant Bacterial Lung Infections

  • 3 Million
  • Spain
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Inhalable Aerosol Light Source for Controlling Drug-Resistant Bacterial Lung Infections
Company Name INSTITUT QUIMIC DE SARRIA
Funded By 38
Country Spain , Western Europe
Project Value 3 Million
Project Detail

Light4lungs addresses the problem of antimicrobial resistance in the treatment of chronic lung infections, which are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diseases such as cystic fibrosis and hospital-acquired lung infections. The goal is to develop a novel therapeutic scheme for the treatment of the infections, whereby antibiotics will be replaced by inhalable light sources that will excite bacterial endogenous photosensitisers (e.g., iron-free porphyrins), eliminating the pathogenic bacteria by the photodynamic effect (local production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species by the combined action of light, a photosensitiser and oxygen) irrespective of its multidrug resistance profile. The treatment will be safe for the host tissue because of its lack of self-photosensitising ability. Light4Lungs departs from current paradigms: (1) bacterial infections will be treated without antibiotics, which will be replaced by breathable light sources; (2) bacteria will be eliminated without any externally-added drug, taking advantage of endogenous photosensitisers; (3) a breathable light source will be used to elicit the therapeutic action, avoiding the use of invasive physical tethers to deliver light to the lungs. The project encompasses the development of particles with persistent luminescence, the aerosol technology for activation and delivery to the lungs, and the definition of the treatment parameters through toxicity and efficacy tests in clinically relevant models of respiratory infections. The project combines several different scientific expertise from photonics to medicine. The results will be useful for patients with recalcitrant respiratory tract bacterial infections and will eventually be extended to other diseases in the lungs and in other internal organs. The impact reaches beyond antimicrobial resistance itself and will affect many other fields such as healthcare, nanomedicine, materials science and nanotechnology and lightning

Sector Administration & Marketing

Contact Details

Company Name INSTITUT QUIMIC DE SARRIA
Address Calle Via Augusta 384-394 08017 Barcelona
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/225324/factsheet/en

7.

HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO

Chasing pre-industrial aerosols

  • 2 Million
  • Finland
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Chasing pre-industrial aerosols
Company Name HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO
Funded By 38
Country Finland , Western Europe
Project Value 2 Million
Project Detail

Aerosol particles affect the climate by scattering incoming radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei; however, their net effect remains of highest uncertainty, specifically when quantifying their relationship to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. It has been estimated that 45% of the variance of aerosol forcing arises from uncertainties in natural emissions. This highlight the importance of understanding pristine preindustrial-like environments, with natural aerosols only. One of the great challenges in understanding preindustrial aerosols and their sources resides in identifying the processes by which new particles form and grow from oxidized vapours. We recently presented in Science the ground-breaking observation of purely organic nucleation. The existence of this mechanism was confirmed by laboratory experiments where we show that highly oxygenated molecules are able to form new particles independent of H2SO4. This finding sheds the light into the preindustrial era where the anthropogenic emissions were almost absent and H2SO4 concentration was rather minimal. The aim of my project is to provide unprecedented data to resolve the preindustrial nucleation mechanism. I will organize intensive long-term measurements in pristine preindustrial-like environments like the Arctic and Siberia. Using state-of-the-art chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I will retrieve the chemical cluster composition and the vapours concentration. Additionally, I am planning short intensive measurements at high altitude above the oceans. Finally, these measurements will be complemented by laboratory experiments needed to probe the observed mechanism and retrieve a parametrization that can be used in global modelling. The outcome of these field campaigns combined with laboratory experiments will provide extraordinary results in understanding pre-industrial aerosol formation, which will set the baseline for estimations of the impact of present and future aerosol on climate.

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Contact Details

Company Name HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO
Address Yliopistonkatu 3 00014 Helsingin Yliopisto
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/225222/factsheet/en

8.

KOBENHAVNS UNIVERSITET

Modelling Arctic Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds emissions (MABVOC)

  • 2,00,195
  • Denmark
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Modelling Arctic Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds emissions (MABVOC)
Company Name KOBENHAVNS UNIVERSITET
Funded By 38
Country Denmark , Western Europe
Project Value 2,00,195
Project Detail

Arctic is warming at approximately twice the global speed, which could result in drastic changes in the arctic biosphere as well as its potential feedbacks to the atmosphere. Several important but uncertain feedbacks are related to biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions from arctic plants and high organic soils. BVOC influence climate systems through changing atmospheric compositions (oxidant and aerosols); however, the magnitudes and directions of these feedbacks are still poorly quantified for the Arctic. This project, MABVOC, aims to quantify BVOC emissions for the pan-Arctic region by using a process-based dynamic ecosystem model (LPJ-GUESS), combined with leaf, soil and ecosystem levels observations from the Arctic, and to further predict potential changes of emissions under climate change. A series of model developments will be proposed in this project to explicitly consider arctic plants emission features as well as soil BVOC dynamics. The host group, conducting large and novel field observations about arctic BVOC, will provide needed field data and frontier understanding that will be implemented in the model. I will combine my expertise in arctic ecosystem modelling to numerically link BVOC fluxes with different ecosystem processes, which enables me to provide quantifications of different factors’ impacts on emissions to the host group. The high degree of complementary expertise between the host and I will guarantee the quality and smoothness of this project. The updated emission estimates from the Arctic will pave a way for reassessing arctic BVOC-mediated feedbacks to the climate system. Furthermore, the proposed model developments in this project will be transferable to the larger modelling community to reduce uncertainties in arctic applications. The integration of experiences between field investigators and ecosystem modellers in this project will lead to a productive and valuable exchange of knowledge on both sides.

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Contact Details

Company Name KOBENHAVNS UNIVERSITET
Address Norregade 10 1165 Kobenhavn
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/206715/factsheet/en

9.

ARISTOTELIO PANEPISTIMIO THESSALONIKIS

SHIPPING CONTRIBUTIONS TO INLAND POLLUTION PUSH FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF REGULATIONS

  • 5 Million
  • Greece
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SHIPPING CONTRIBUTIONS TO INLAND POLLUTION PUSH FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF REGULATIONS
Company Name ARISTOTELIO PANEPISTIMIO THESSALONIKIS
Funded By 38
Country Greece , Western Europe
Project Value 5 Million
Project Detail

SCIPPER will implement available and innovative techniques for monitoring the compliance of individual ships to existing sulphur and future NOx and PM air pollution regulations. Using five field measurement campaigns, one mirror campaign in Hong Kong and long-term monitoring data SCIPPER will assess the suitability, operational capacity, and cost-effectiveness of various monitoring methods. The techniques identified include on-board, on-shore in situ and optical remote, airborne, and satellite systems: assessment will be demonstrated in ports (Gothenburg, Hamburg or Rotterdam and Marseille) and in the shipping lanes of the North and Baltic Seas, English Channel and Mediterranean. Where available this will be carried out in parallel to established official monitoring methodologies. Bilateral knowledge exchange to ports in Asia, Australia and the US will be enabled through the consortium’s extensive network of contacts, thereby advancing the global impact of EU initiatives. New innovations to be tested by SCIPPER include: on-board and airborne sensors to measure black carbon and ultrafine particles; a new ultra-sensitive ‘sniffer’ SO2 method and; the potential use of satellite observations for monitoring individual vessel NOx and SO2 emissions. Measurements will also be used to develop relevant emission factors, required by emissions inventories and Air Quality (AQ) simulation models. AQ models will be enhanced to simulate secondary aerosol formation as the emission plume ages in the atmosphere. Using these advanced simulation tools, SCIPPER will quantify the environmental and health impacts of varying degrees of regulatory compliance for selected test cases. The overall objective of SCIPPER is to provide authorities with: (i) fundamental technical information in developing their enforcement approaches and (ii) modelling tools and monitoring techniques in order to quantify the environmental benefits of successful enforcement.

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Contact Details

Company Name ARISTOTELIO PANEPISTIMIO THESSALONIKIS
Address Kedea Building, Tritis Septemvriou, Aristotle Univ Campus 54636 Thessaloniki
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/221848/factsheet/en

10.

STOCKHOLMS UNIVERSITET

Constrained aerosol forcing for improved climate projections

  • 8 Million
  • Sweden
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Constrained aerosol forcing for improved climate projections
Company Name STOCKHOLMS UNIVERSITET
Funded By 38
Country Sweden , Western Europe
Project Value 8 Million
Project Detail

The overall objective of FORCeS is to understand and reduce the long-standing uncertainty in anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing, which is crucial in order to increase confidence in climate projections. These projections are highly relevant for decision makers, as they provide key information on emission pathways that will facilitate the targets of the Paris Agreement to be achieved. FORCeS will identify key processes governing aerosol radiative forcing, as well as climate feedbacks related to aerosols and clouds, and improve the knowledge about these processes by bringing together leading European scientists with trans-disciplinary expertise to i) exploit the wealth of in-situ and remote sensing data that have emerged during the recent decades; ii) perform dedicated laboratory and field experiments; iii) utilize a range of state-of-the-art computational models; and iv) apply novel theoretical methods including machine learning techniques. The process analysis within FORCeS will be conducted with the overall aim of improving a set of leading European climate models, which all provide essential information to climate assessments such as the IPCC report. The gap between knowledge on the process scale and model application on the climate scale is currently a main reason preventing the climate science community to move forward in terms of understanding the role of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions in the climate system. FORCeS will bridge this knowledge gap using systematically designed scale chains that involve methodologies for constraining processes on scales ranging from hours to decades, ultimately leading to the desired refinement of model-estimated aerosol forcing and climate sensitivity. FORCeS will reach out to decision makers and stakeholders and provide added-value information through e.g. workshops where climate science and climate policy experts meet to achieve maximum impact.

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Contact Details

Company Name STOCKHOLMS UNIVERSITET
Address Universitetsvagen 10 10691 Stockholm
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/223269/factsheet/en

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