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1.

THE CHANCELLOR MASTERS AND SCHOLARS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

Volcanic Forcing in Climate Model Projections: Towards a New Paradigm.

  • 224,934
  • United Kingdom
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Volcanic Forcing in Climate Model Projections: Towards a New Paradigm.
Company Name THE CHANCELLOR MASTERS AND SCHOLARS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
Funded By 38
Country United Kingdom , Western Europe
Project Value 224,934
Project Detail

Volcanic eruptions injecting gases into the stratosphere modify Earth’s radiative balance and atmosphere chemistry, which in turn impacts all components of the Earth system. The surface cooling that follows large eruptions can have major societal impacts and volcanic eruptions contribute to mitigate global warming. Yet, climate model projections use simplistic representation of this key forcing and commonly assume a constant volcanic forcing in the future. The most realistic projections only represent very large and rare eruptions, and ignore how climate change will affect the rise of volcanic plumes, the evolution of the associated aerosol clouds and the subsequent climate impacts. To improve the representation of volcanic forcing in climate model projections, I will address two fundamental questions: 1) How does a statistically realistic representation of volcanic eruptions of all magnitude in climate models affect projected climate changes? 2) How will climate-volcano feedbacks modulate the impact of future volcanic eruptions on climate? To answer them, I will perform a suite of experiments with the United Kingdom’s flagship Earth system model, UKESM1, which is a fully coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate model. These experiments are aimed to feed the designing of future climate projections. During the fellowship, I will gain brand-new skills in climate modeling and be trained by world-leading experts in this field. I will combine these skills with my expertise in physical volcanology to address the proposed research questions and, in particular, improve our understanding of climate-volcano interactions in the context of global climate change. The fellowship will enable me to become an interdisciplinary leader in climate-volcano research and will constitute a stepping stone towards new research opportunities and applications for a tenure-track position.

Sector Administration & Marketing

Contact Details

Company Name THE CHANCELLOR MASTERS AND SCHOLARS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
Address Trinity Lane The Old Schools Cb2 1tn Cambridge
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/221984/factsheet/en

2.

University of Bristol

EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Aerosol Science

  • 7 Million
  • United Kingdom
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EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Aerosol Science
Company Name University of Bristol
Funded By 107
Country United Kingdom , Western Europe
Project Value 7 Million
Project Detail

An aerosol consists of solid particles or liquid droplets dispersed in a gas phase with sizes spanning from clusters of molecules (nanometres) to rain droplets (millimetres). Aerosol science is a term used to describe our understanding of the collective underlying physical science governing the properties and transformation of aerosols in a broad range of contexts, extending from drug delivery to the lungs to disease transmission, combustion and energy generation, materials processing, environmental science, and the delivery of agricultural and consumer products. Despite the commonality in the physical science core to all of these sectors, doctoral training in aerosol science has been focussed in specific contexts such as inhalation, the environment and materials. Representatives from these diverse sectors have reported that over 90% of their organisations experience difficulty in recruiting to research and technical roles requiring core expertise in aerosol science. Many of these will act as CDT partners and have co-created this bid. We will establish a CDT in Aerosol Science that, for the first time on a global stage, will provide foundational and comprehensive training for doctoral scientists in the core physical science. Not only will this bring coherence to training in aerosol science in the UK, but it will catalyse new collaborations between researchers in different disciplines. Inverting the existing training paradigm will ensure that practitioners of the future have the technical agility and confidence to move between different application contexts, leading to exciting and innovative approaches to address the technological, societal and health challenges in aerosol science. We will assemble a multidisciplinary team of supervisors from the Universities of Bristol, Bath, Cambridge, Hertfordshire, Imperial, Leeds and Manchester, with expertise spanning chemistry, physics, biological sciences, chemical and mechanical engineering, life and medical sciences, pharmacy and pharmacology, and earth and environmental sciences. Such breadth is crucial to provide the broad perspective on aerosol science central to developing researchers able to address the challenges that fall at the boundaries between these disciplines. We will engage with partners from across the industrial, governmental and public sectors, and with the Aerosol Society of the UK and Ireland, to deliver a legacy of training packages and an online training portal for future practitioners. With partners, we have defined the key research competencies in aerosol science necessary for their employees. Partners will provide support through skills-training placements, co-sponsored studentships, and contribution to taught elements. 5 cohorts of 16 doctoral students will follow a period of intensive training in the core concepts of aerosol science with training placements in complementary application areas and with partners. In subsequent years we will continue to build the activity of the cohort through summer schools, workshops and conferences hosted by the Aerosol Society, virtual training and enhanced training activities, and student-led initiatives. The students will acquire a perspective of aerosol science that stretches beyond the artificial boundaries of traditional disciplines, seeing the commonalities in core physical science. A cohort-based approach will provide a national focal point for training, acting as a catalyst to assemble a multi-disciplinary team with the breadth of research activity to provide opportunities for students to undertake research in complementary areas of aerosol science, and a mechanism for delivering the broad academic ingredients necessary for core training in aerosol science. A network of highly-skilled doctoral practitioners in aerosol science will result, capable of addressing the biggest problems and ethical dilemmas of our age, such as healthy ageing, sustainable and safe consumer products, and climate geoengineering.

Sector Administration & Marketing

Contact Details

Company Name University of Bristol
Web Site https://gow.epsrc.ukri.org/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/S023593/1

3.

CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE CNRS

Physico-Chemistry of Carbonaceous Aerosol Pollution in Evolving Cities

  • 2 Million
  • France
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Physico-Chemistry of Carbonaceous Aerosol Pollution in Evolving Cities
Company Name CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE CNRS
Funded By 38
Country France , Western Europe
Project Value 2 Million
Project Detail

Carbonaceous aerosols (organic and black carbon) remain a major unresolved issue in atmospheric science, especially in urban centers, where they are one of the dominant aerosol constituents and among most toxic to human health. The challenge is twofold: first, our understanding of the sources, sinks and physico-chemical properties of the complex mixture of carbonaceous species is still incomplete; and second, the representation of urban heterogeneities in air quality models is inadequate as they are designed for regional applications. The CARB-City project proposes the development of an innovative modeling framework that will address both issues by combining molecular-level chemical constraints and city-scale modeling to achieve the following objectives: (WP1) to develop and apply new chemical parameterizations, constrained by an explicit chemical model, for carbonaceous aerosol formation from urban precursors, and (WP2) to examine whether urban heterogeneities in sources and mixing can enhance non-linearities in chemistry of carbonaceous compounds and modify their predicted composition. The new modeling framework will then be applied (WP3) to quantify the contribution of traditional and emerging urban aerosol precursor sources to chemistry and toxicity of carbonaceous aerosols; and (WP4) to assess the effectiveness of greener-city strategies in removing aerosol pollutants. This work will enhance fundamental scientific understanding as to how key physico-chemical processes control the lifecycle of carbonaceous aerosols in cities, and will improve the predictability of air quality models in terms of composition and toxicity of urban aerosols, and their sensitivity to changes in energy and land use that cities are currently experiencing. The modeling framework will have the required chemical and spatial resolution for assessing human exposure to urban aerosols. This will allow policy makers to optimize urban emission reductions and sustainable urban development.

Sector Administration & Marketing

Contact Details

Company Name CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE CNRS
Address Rue Michel Ange 3 75794 Paris
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/221442/factsheet/en

4.

GREENSPENSE LTD

Propellant-Free Continuous-Dispensing Packaging Solution: From Commercial Pilot to Full Commercialization

  • 2 Million
  • Israel
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Propellant-Free Continuous-Dispensing Packaging Solution: From Commercial Pilot to Full Commercialization
Company Name GREENSPENSE LTD
Funded By 38
Country Israel , Western Asia
Project Value 2 Million
Project Detail

Aerosol dispensers have serious drawbacks, stemming from the presence of pressurized and, in most cases, combustible gas. The use of pressurized gas requires pressurized packages that must be rigid and cylindrical. The gas, metal and chemicals used are harmful to human health and to the environment, they come with inherent safety issues and they incur high manufacturing, transportation and handling costs. Changes in consumer shopping habits and growing awareness of sustainability are driving the €9 billion global aerosol packaging market to look for a gas-free alternative to aerosols that is cheaper, safer, more eco-friendly and that allows a wider variety of package forms. GreenSpense is bringing to market Eco-Drive, a cost-effective alternative to aerosol packages that eliminates their environmental, health and safety issues, opens a new world of packaging design and differentiation opportunities for brands and can be seamlessly implemented on existing production lines. The product provides an aerosol-like dispensing experience with many significant advantages: a cleaner environment, reduced manufacturing, transportation and handling costs, use of recyclable packaging, exciting new horizons for brand differentiation via packaging design freedom, and sidestepping the increasing regulatory restrictions being placed on the manufacture and transportation of aerosol packages. The product is compatible with existing aerosol filling equipment. European and international customers have already started working with GreenSpense on packaging their continuous-dispensing products with Eco-Drive. The project focus is to address the strong market demand for a gas-free and pressure-free continuous dispensing package and to take Eco-Drive from its current initial phase of paid-for commercial pilots, through large-scale commercial readiness in the European and global liquid-product-packaging market.

Sector Administration & Marketing

Contact Details

Company Name GREENSPENSE LTD
Address 17 Hatchelet Street 2017900 Misgav
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/221329/factsheet/en

5.

UNIVERSITY OF OULU

The unexplored world of aerosol surfaces and their impacts.

  • 1 Million
  • Finland
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The unexplored world of aerosol surfaces and their impacts.
Company Name UNIVERSITY OF OULU
Funded By European Research Council (ERC)
Country Finland , Western Europe
Project Value 1 Million
Project Detail

We are changing the composition of Earth’s atmosphere, with profound consequences for the environment and our wellbeing. Tiny aerosol particles are globally responsible for much of the health effects and mortality related to air pollution and play key roles in regulating Earth’s climate via their critical influence on both radiation balance and cloud formation. Every single cloud droplet has been nucleated on the surface of an aerosol particle. Aerosols and droplets provide the media for condensed-phase chemistry in the atmosphere, but large gaps remain in our understanding of their formation, transformations, and climate interactions. Surface properties may play crucial roles in these processes, but currently next to nothing is known about the surfaces of atmospheric aerosols and cloud droplets and their impacts are almost entirely unconstrained. My recent work strongly suggests that such surfaces are significantly different from their associated bulk material and that these unique properties can impact aerosol processes all the way to the global scale. Very few surface-specific properties are currently considered when evaluating aerosol effects on atmospheric chemistry and global climate. Novel developments of cutting-edge computational and experimental methods, in particular synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy, now for the first time makes direct molecular-level characterizations of atmospheric surfaces feasible. This project will demonstrate and quantify potential surface impacts in the atmosphere, by first directly characterizing realistic atmospheric surfaces, and then trace fingerprints of specific surface properties in a hierarchy of experimental and modelled aerosol processes and atmospheric effects. Successful demonstrations of unique aerosol surface fingerprints will constitute truly novel insights into a currently uncharted area of the atmospheric system and identify an entirely new frontier in aerosol research and atmospheric science.

Sector Environment

Contact Details

6.

ALFRED-WEGENER-INSTITUT HELMHOLTZ-ZENTRUM FUR POLAR- UND MEERESFORSCHUNG

Stratospheric and upper tropospheric processes for better climate predictions

  • 11 Million
  • Germany
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Stratospheric and upper tropospheric processes for better climate predictions
Company Name ALFRED-WEGENER-INSTITUT HELMHOLTZ-ZENTRUM FUR POLAR- UND MEERESFORSCHUNG
Funded By European Union
Country Germany , Western Europe
Project Value 11 Million
Project Detail

StratoClim will produce more reliable projections of climate change and stratospheric ozone by a better understanding and improved representation of key processes in the Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere (UTS). This will be achieved by an integrated approach bridging observations from dedicated field activities, process modelling on all scales, and global modelling with a suite of chemistry climate models (CCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs). At present, complex interactions and feedbacks are inadequately represented in global models with respect to natural and anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosol precursors and other important trace gases, the atmospheric dynamics affecting transport into and through the UTS, and chemical and microphysical processes governing the chemistry and the radiative properties of the UTS. StratoClim will (a) improve the understanding of the microphysical, chemical and dynamical processes that determine the composition of the UTS, such as the formation, loss and redistribution of aerosol, ozone and water vapour, and how these processes will be affected by climate change; (b) implement these processes and fully include the interactive feedback from UTS ozone and aerosol on surface climate in CCMs and ESMs. Through StratoClim new measurements will be obtained in key regions: (1) in a tropical campaign with a high altitude research aircraft carrying an innovative and comprehensive payload, (2) by a new tropical station for unprecedented ground and sonde measurements, and (3) through newly developed satellite data products. The improved climate models will be used to make more robust and accurate predictions of surface climate and stratospheric ozone, both with a view to the protection of life on Earth. Socioeconomic implications will be assessed and policy relevant information will be communicated to policy makers and the public through a dedicated office for communication, stakeholder contact and international co-operation.

Sector Science & Research

Contact Details

Company Name ALFRED-WEGENER-INSTITUT HELMHOLTZ-ZENTRUM FUR POLAR- UND MEERESFORSCHUNG
Address AM HANDELSHAFEN 12 27570 BREMERHAVEN Germany
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/111345_en.html

7.

BARCELONA SUPERCOMPUTING CENTER - CENTRO NACIONAL DE SUPERCOMPUTACION

FRontiers in dust minerAloGical coMposition and its Effects upoN climaTe

  • 2 Million
  • Spain
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FRontiers in dust minerAloGical coMposition and its Effects upoN climaTe
Company Name BARCELONA SUPERCOMPUTING CENTER - CENTRO NACIONAL DE SUPERCOMPUTACION
Funded By European Union
Country Spain , Western Europe
Project Value 2 Million
Project Detail

Soil dust aerosols are mixtures of different minerals, whose relative abundances, particle size distribution (PSD), shape, surface topography and mixing state influence their effect upon climate. However, Earth System Models typically assume that dust aerosols have a globally uniform composition, neglecting the known regional variations in the mineralogy of the sources. The goal of FRAGMENT is to understand and constrain the global mineralogical composition of dust along with its effects upon climate. The representation of the global dust mineralogy is hindered by our limited knowledge of the global soil mineral content and our incomplete understanding of the emitted dust PSD in terms of its constituent minerals that results from the fragmentation of soil aggregates during wind erosion. The emitted PSD affects the duration of particle transport and thus each mineral’s global distribution, along with its specific effect upon climate. Coincident observations of the emitted dust and soil PSD are scarce and do not characterize the mineralogy. In addition, the existing theoretical paradigms disagree fundamentally on multiple aspects. We will contribute new fundamental understanding of the size-resolved mineralogy of dust at emission and its relationship with the parent soil, based on an unprecedented ensemble of measurement campaigns that have been designed to thoroughly test our theoretical hypotheses. To improve knowledge of the global soil mineral content, we will evaluate and use available remote hyperspectral imaging, which is unprecedented in the context of dust modelling. Our new methods will anticipate the coming innovation of retrieving soil mineralogy through high-quality spaceborne hyperspectral measurements. Finally, we will generate integrated and quantitative knowledge of the role of dust mineralogy in dust-radiation, dust-chemistry and dust-cloud interactions based on modeling experiments constrained with our theoretical innovations and field measurements.

Sector Environment And Pollution

Contact Details

Company Name BARCELONA SUPERCOMPUTING CENTER - CENTRO NACIONAL DE SUPERCOMPUTACION
Address Calle Jordi Girona 31 08034 BARCELONA Spain
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/214076_en.html

8.

BARCELONA SUPERCOMPUTING CENTER - CENTRO NACIONAL DE SUPERCOMPUTACION

Addressing key uncertainties in mineral DUST EmiSsion modelling to better constrain the global dust cycle

  • 158,122
  • Spain
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Addressing key uncertainties in mineral DUST EmiSsion modelling to better constrain the global dust cycle
Company Name BARCELONA SUPERCOMPUTING CENTER - CENTRO NACIONAL DE SUPERCOMPUTACION
Funded By European Union
Country Spain , Western Europe
Project Value 158,122
Project Detail

Mineral dust emission is ubiquitous in arid and semi-arid areas, representing a serious hazard for health, environment, and economy in many countries, in particular some of the least developed. Dust is a dominant contributor to the global aerosol load and plays a significant role in different aspects of climate and atmospheric chemistry. A key uncertainty in estimating present-day dust emissions is the contribution of human activities such as cultivation and grazing that disturb the soil. Recent research allowed representing natural and anthropogenic dust sources in global models based on high-resolution satellite data and land use maps. However, the accurate quantification of dust emissions and their attribution to natural and anthropogenic origin is currently hampered by deficiencies in dust emission modelling. Deficiencies include an incomplete representation of the physics of dust emission and a lack of skill to model certain atmospheric processes driving dust emission. DUST.ES will constrain present-day global dust emissions for both source types (natural/anthropogenic) taking into account (1) aerodynamic entrainment, a potentially important, yet previously neglected dust emission mechanism; and (2) moist convective dust storms (haboobs), intense dust events, which are unrepresented in global models, but have a big impact on society. DUST.ES will estimate the regional and global relative significance of dust emissions caused by different dust emission mechanisms, meteorological dust injection processes, and source type. Results of DUST.ES will be a cornerstone to the longer-term goal of quantifying the effects of anthropogenic dust sources in the present and future climate. The beneficiary (BSC) hosts the WMO Dust Storm Prediction Regional Center for North Africa, Middle East and Europe, ensuring that the results have an immediate and sizeable benefit in several areas of public and private sectors across Europe and beyond.

Sector Services

Contact Details

Company Name BARCELONA SUPERCOMPUTING CENTER - CENTRO NACIONAL DE SUPERCOMPUTACION
Address Calle Jordi Girona 31 08034 BARCELONA Spain
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/214529_en.html

9.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE CORK - NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND, CORK

Characterising anthropogenic particulate properties in the ultraviolet by chamber and coordinated in situ observations

  • 175,866
  • Ireland
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Characterising anthropogenic particulate properties in the ultraviolet by chamber and coordinated in situ observations
Company Name UNIVERSITY COLLEGE CORK - NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND, CORK
Funded By European Union
Country Ireland , Northern Europe
Project Value 175,866
Project Detail

Understanding the sources, chemistry, and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol is key for policy decisions to mitigate the dangerous effects of climate change and improve air quality for human health. The anthropogenic sources and role of brown carbon, a type of secondary organic aerosol that exhibits increasing absorption at short UV wavelengths and therefore impacts secondary pollutants like ozone, remains an open question. In particular, residential home heating emissions, which contribute to poor wintertime air quality in northern European urban centres, are an understudied source of brown carbon. This study fills an important gap in our understanding of brown carbon by characterising UV (300 – 400 nm) absorption using the extinction-minus-scattering method based on two new instruments: a UV incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (IBBCEAS) measures optical extinction, and an innovative broadband nephelometer (BBNeph) measures scattering. Both instruments utilise state-of-the-art UV light sources. Measurements of the UV absorption of organic aerosol produced under controlled conditions in the Irish Atmospheric Simulation Chamber (IASC) identify oxidation pathways that produce brown carbon. Subsequent field studies in an urban centre improve our understanding of the local chemistry and fuel types responsible for brown carbon formation in the real atmosphere. This project combines the Fellow’s expertise in the field of aerosol scattering technology and the capabilities of the host institution, including the new IASC and cutting-edge IBBCEAS technology. The Fellow will significantly enhance her scientific skills and gain training across a wide range of complementary and transferrable skills. The implementation of the research is highly structured, with a clear timeline for successful completion of the project goals. The programme both fully prepares the Fellow for an academic career, and strengthens the research at the host institution.

Sector Environment

Contact Details

Company Name UNIVERSITY COLLEGE CORK - NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND, CORK
Address WESTERN ROAD T12 YN60 Cork Ireland
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/214374_en.html

10.

UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA

Aerosol-ClOud iNteractions anD Effects oN atmoSpheric rAdiaTIve fOrciNg

  • 158,122
  • Spain
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Aerosol-ClOud iNteractions anD Effects oN atmoSpheric rAdiaTIve fOrciNg
Company Name UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA
Funded By European Union
Country Spain , Western Europe
Project Value 158,122
Project Detail

The effect of changes in atmospheric aerosol properties on clouds formation, distribution and radiative properties is the most uncertain component of the Earth´s-Atmosphere energy balance. This uncertainty affects climate model estimates, key for the development of strategic plans for climate change mitigation and for policymakers worldwide. Thus, there is an essential need for understanding aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) processes and reducing their associated uncertainties in radiative forcing (RF). Ground-based remote sensors (e.g. lidar and radar) are crucial in this sense, providing profiles of aerosol and cloud properties, required to study ACI processes and their influence on RF. During this project, we will perform a theoretical evaluation through numerical models for optimizing lidar-radar configurations in order to improve ACI processes understanding, which could bring novel technical advancements by improving the instrumental capabilities of remote sensors. We will also perform sensitivity studies of minimum parameter information required and the impact of noise for the estimation of ACI RF from combining lidar and radar measurements. To that end, we will use the numerical models, radiative transfer codes and the global model GEOS-5 as reference data. Experimental data for the lidar and radar systems at Granada (Spain), operating within H2020 ACTRIS-2 project, will be used in the final phase. The experimental supersite at Granada is a unique environment thanks to the availability of multiple remote sensors and in-situ instrumentation which offers the possibility of evaluating the theoretical simulations and the obtained outcomes using measured data. The innovative research from the hosting group, plus the cooperative efforts with the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, the University of Reading or NASA, will guarantee the success of the proposal and a fruitful experience for the candidate on her way to consolidate as an independent leading researcher.

Sector Environment

Contact Details

Company Name UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA
Address CUESTA DEL HOSPICIO SN 18071 GRANADA Spain
Web Site https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/214447_en.html

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